Fluoridated water – why some don’t get enough

Lesson Materials

  1. Family L, Zheng G, Cabezas M, Cloud J, Hsu S, Rubin E, Smith LV, Kuo T. Reasons why low-income people in urban areas do not drink tap water. J Am Dent Assoc. 2019 Jun;150(6):503-513. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2018.12.005. Epub 2019 Apr 9. PMID: 30979398.
    1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30979398/
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ten great public health achievements--United States, 1900-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1999 Apr 2;48(12):241-3. PMID: 10220250.
    1. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10220250/
  3. Rodwan, John G. "Confronting challenges: US and international bottled water developments and statistics for 2008." Bottled Water Reporter (2009): 12-18.
    1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228310619_Discontinuous_Behavioral_Responses_to_Recycling_Laws_and_Plastic_Water_Bottle_Deposits
  4. Gleick, Peter H., and Heather S. Cooley. "Energy implications of bottled water." Environmental Research Letters 4.1 (2009): 014009.
    1. https://www.thoughtandawe.net/public-health/bottled-water-a-thoughtful-investigation/



This lesson features Dr. Tony Kuo, MD, M.S.H.S. Content for this episode was derived from Dr. Kuo’s 2019 article featured in the Journal of the American Dental Association entitled “Reasons Why Low-Income People in Urban Areas Do Not Drink Tap Water.” This lesson will explore why certain demographics forego Fluoridated water and water and what the associated consequences. You will gain better insight for how help promote the consumption of Fluoridated water. We recommend reviewing the articles provided for you in the reference section.

Lesson Objectives

  1. Learn why certain demographics forego fluoridated water
  2. Gain a better appreciation for the benefits of fluoride for a dental population
  3. Understand how to promote the consumption of fluoridated water 
  4. Learn where fluoride can be made available for consumption


  • Lesson Length: 24 min
  • CE credit: 0.25 hours
  • Release Date: 3/2/20
  • Review Date: 11/15/20
  • Expiration Date: 11/15/23